Laser surgery for piles or haemorrhoids is a procedure in which a laser beam is used to burn and shrink the haemorrhoids, which are swollen and enlarged blood vessels located in the anal region. The procedure is also known as Laser Haemorrhoidoplasty or Haemorrhoidal LASER Procedure.
Pile or haemorrhoids are swollen and enlarged blood vessels in the anal cushion region that can cause discomforts like itching and rectal bleeding. Based on the location of the development, piles are of two types:
- Internal haemorrhoid: is present inside the anus.
- External haemorrhoid: is present under the skin around the anus.
Anatomy and Physiology of the Anal Canal
The anal canal is the last part of the lower digestive tract and is approximately 2 to 3 inches long. The canal is enclosed by the internal and external sphincter muscles. The anus is connected to the rectum (the final section of the large intestine) proximally, and the anal canal terminates at the anal verge from where the stool is excreted out of the body. The rectum is lined by columnar epithelial cells while the anal canal is lined by squamous epithelial cells.
A muscular sheet called the pelvic diaphragm runs perpendicular to the juncture of the rectum and anal canal and maintains a constriction between these two segments of the large intestine. The rectum cavity is divided into three to four chambers that help to support the rectal contents.
Food wastes first accumulate in the colon until they are ready to be excreted out of the body. The food waste enters the rectum, and when sufficient pressure builds up within the cavity, the urge to eliminate waste occurs. The nerve receptors present within the rectal wall is stimulated by the stretching of the anal muscles, which put impulses to the anal canal, chest and abdominal muscles and the medulla oblongata of the brain, which makes the individual conscious of the need to excrete.