SGPT Test - Full Form, Normal Range, Price, Purpose, Result
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The liver is one of the most important organs in the body that manages a variety of metabolic processes and carries out all of the necessary bodily functions efficiently. The enzyme called SGPT (SGPT full form being serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase) is usually found in the liver cells.
SGPT, also known as Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), helps the liver perform some crucial functions, including detoxifying blood. It is circulated into the bloodstream in excess when the liver suffers an injury or gets damaged. The SGPT test is used to determine if someone is suffering from liver damage or failure.
In this article, you will learn about the SGPT test and all the other relevant details for your reference.
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)
Fasting not required
Test done by
Glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT)
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About SGPT Test
The SGPT or ALT test is typically done along with other medical tests involving liver enzymes. The results can provide a doctor with useful and accurate information regarding liver diseases when monitored along with other liver enzyme levels.
The test is performed as part of a routine examination or if a person has risk factors for liver diseases. The normal range for blood serum in SGPT tests is 7 to 55 U/L.
Need for SGPT Test
The standard set of liver function tests includes measuring the levels of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, serum bilirubin, prothrombin time, international normalised ratio (INR), total protein, and albumin.
Depending on the pattern of elevation, these tests can assist in organising a differential diagnosis and identifying the region of the liver where possible damage may be occurring. Besides, the purpose of the SGPT test includes:
Identifying Liver Diseases: The SGPT test is commonly used to diagnose and monitor liver diseases such as hepatitis (viral, alcoholic, or autoimmune), fatty liver disease, liver cirrhosis, or liver cancer.
Medication Monitoring: Certain medications can cause liver toxicity. Regular SGPT testing is necessary to monitor liver function while on these medications.
Alcohol Abuse: Excessive alcohol consumption can cause liver damage, and the SGPT test can help assess the extent of the injury.
Evaluation of Abnormal Liver Function: If other liver function tests, such as AST (Aspartate Aminotransferase) or bilirubin, are abnormal, the SGPT test can provide additional information to identify the underlying cause.
Monitoring Treatment: For patients with known liver diseases, SGPT tests are performed regularly to assess the effectiveness of treatment and disease progression.
Health Screenings: In some cases, an SGPT test may be included as part of routine health screenings or pre-employment medical evaluations.
If you have concerns about your liver health or if your doctor suspects liver problems, they may recommend an SGPT test.
It is essential to follow your doctor's advice and get the appropriate tests done for an accurate diagnosis and timely treatment if needed.
Benefits of SGPT Test
SGPT tests are usually carried out if a patient exhibits the symptoms of dark urine, nausea, vomiting, or pain in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen.
Although SGPT blood tests are performed as part of a group of liver function tests, there are several other benefits of their results:
It is also used to identify viral hepatitis and hepatic insufficiency.
It also helps determine whether the SGPT level is rising or constant, which allows your doctor to decide the course of treatment.
Your doctor can learn more about the condition of your liver by comparing the levels of SGPT and SGOT in your blood.
Preparation for SGPT Test
The SGPT test, also known as the ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase) test, is a simple blood test that typically does not require any special preparation.
However, to ensure accurate and reliable results, you may want to follow these general guidelines:
Some basic things that must always be taken into deep consideration for SGPT blood tests are:
Medical History: Inform your healthcare provider about any pre-existing medical conditions, such as liver disease, that could impact the test results.
Medications: The doctor should constantly be updated about the medical history and the use of medications. You may be asked to discontinue the use of certain medications before taking the blood test.
Fasting: It is a non-fasting test, so there are no restrictions, and a person can eat or drink anything unless instructed otherwise.
Fasting Blood Glucose Test: If you are also scheduled for a fasting blood glucose test, you can do both tests together in the morning after an overnight fast.
Alcohol and Caffeine: Avoid consuming alcohol for at least 24 hours before the test, as alcohol intake can influence liver enzyme levels. Similarly, limit caffeine intake, especially if it's a part of your usual morning routine, as it may affect blood test results.
Wear comfortable clothing: Loose-fitting clothing will allow easy access to your arm for blood collection.
Comfortable clothing can help you relax during the procedure and make the blood draw more efficient.
How is SGPT Test Performed?
SGPT blood test does not require any extra preparation on your part. The general procedure for the SGPT test performed is as follows:
Your blood will be drawn by a nurse or lab technician, typically from a vein in your arm.
They will initially wrap a band over the top portion of your arm to cause a blood clot and vein swelling.
They insert a needle into your vein after using an antiseptic to disinfect the region. Your blood will be collected in a tube or vial.
It should simply take a few minutes to perform the blood test. A piece of gauze and a bandage will be placed over the area where the needle was inserted to stop the bleeding once the lab technician has removed the needle and band used to draw your blood.
Afterwards, the sample would be sent for testing. In approximately one day, you should receive your results.
The person can get back to his/her normal routine after the procedure.
SGPT Test Chart Result
SGPT test is just one of the many liver function tests, and interpreting the results requires the expertise of a healthcare professional.
It is a simple blood test for which you can get your test results within 48 hours. Following are the parameters of sgpt test.
SGPT Normal Range
7-55 units per litre
SGPT Test – Mild
56-259 units per litre
SGPT Test – Moderate
300-500 units per litre
SGPT Test – Severe Elevation
> 500 units per litre
Treatment Plan After Test
Once the test results are available, your doctor will analyze them to determine the specific cause of the elevated SGPT levels. The diagnosis will guide the treatment plan.
The treatment plan after an SGPT test depends on the specific underlying cause of the elevated SGPT levels. Elevated SGPT levels can indicate liver damage or injury, but they do not provide a definitive diagnosis on their own.
Further evaluation and investigation are necessary to determine the root cause.
If your SGPT levels are elevated, your doctor will likely take the following steps to develop a treatment plan:
Medical History and Physical Examination: Your doctor will review your medical history, including any medications you are taking, alcohol consumption, and any known pre-existing medical conditions.
They will also perform a physical examination to assess your overall health.
Additional Tests: To identify the cause of elevated SGPT levels, your doctor may order additional tests, such as:
Liver Function Tests: This includes other liver enzymes (e.g., SGOT/AST, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase), which provide a more comprehensive picture of liver health.
Hepatitis Panel: To check for viral hepatitis (A, B, C, etc.).
Imaging Studies: Such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI to evaluate the structure and condition of the liver.
Liver Biopsy: In some cases, a small sample of liver tissue may be taken for examination under a microscope to determine the extent of liver damage.
Treatment will depend on the underlying cause. Some common treatment approaches may include:
Lifestyle Changes: If the elevated SGPT levels are due to alcohol consumption, lifestyle modifications may be recommended, including reducing or eliminating alcohol intake.
Medications: Depending on the diagnosis, your doctor may prescribe medications to treat liver diseases or other conditions causing elevated SGPT levels.
Managing Underlying Conditions: If the elevated SGPT levels are a result of certain medical conditions, such as viral hepatitis or fatty liver disease, managing and treating those conditions will be a priority.
Regular visits to the doctor are necessary to monitor progress, assess the effectiveness of the treatment, and make any adjustments to the treatment plan.
Risks and Complications of SGPT Test
The blood sample will be drawn, placed in a bottle, and labelled with your name and contact information. Then, it will be transported to a lab where it will be chemically tested or studied under a microscope.
You shouldn't have any noticeable side effects because only a small blood volume is drawn during the test.
However, there can be a few minor side effects of the sgpt test, including:
Slight pain when the needle is inserted
Fainting or feeling dizzy
Risk of Delayed SGPT Test
A delay in the SGPT test could worsen the condition of the patient as the treatment is delayed. The metabolism, digestion, detoxification, and removal of chemicals from the body are all significantly influenced by the liver.
SGPT testing can help identify liver damage or diseases such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, or liver cancer. By not getting tested on time, any underlying liver condition may go undetected, potentially delaying the diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
By neglecting SGPT testing, you may increase the risk of developing complications such as liver failure, liver cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer).
Cost of SGPT Test
Several diagnostic labs offer SGPT tests for a reasonable price. You can also request a home blood sample collection or visit one of their locations to get your SGPT test performed at a reasonable cost.
For the SGPT test, the cost starts from about ₹ 60 and can go up to ₹ 150, depending on the city and the particular test you are opting for.
Cost Range (₹)
When to See a Doctor?
During a routine exam, the SGPT test can be suggested as part of a blood panel. Further, your doctor can use the SGPT test results to evaluate the effectiveness of your treatment if you have already received a liver disease diagnosis.
Besides, you may see a doctor if you experience the following symptoms:
Stomach pain or swelling
Yellow skin or eyes
Maintaining a healthy liver is important to adopt an active lifestyle and consume a balanced diet. And, if you exhibit any liver-related warning signals, consulting a medical professional is vital to understand the problem.
In such instances, SGPT tests come handy as they can determine the cause of your problem easily, and the doctor can start the treatment.
If you are struggling to find a doctor or other medical solutions, then you can always get in touch with the experts at HexaHealth. They will guide you through the process of finding required healthcare solutions and living a better life.
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FAQs for SGPT Test
What is SGPT full form?
The SGPT full form in medical is serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase. SGPT is an enzyme found in plasma, numerous bodily tissues, and primarily in the liver. The SGPT blood test measures the amount of GPT (glutamate pyruvate transaminase) in blood serum.
What is the purpose of the SGPT test?
Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase or SGPT test gauges the condition of your liver. Glutamate pyruvate transaminase or GPT in the blood is measured using the SGPT test.
Notably, GPT is an enzyme that can be found in the kidneys, cardiac cells, muscles, and of course, the liver.
What is SGPT in the liver?
SGPT is an enzyme present primarily in the liver. A large amount of SGPT released into the blood could be an indication of cancer, liver damage, or other illnesses.
Also, diabetes, heart attack, obesity, hepatitis C, and other conditions can also increase the blood volume of SGPT.
What is the SGPT normal range in adults?
SGPT, which is primarily present in the liver, seeps into the bloodstream when created in excess.
The SGPT test normal range is usually between 7 to 55 units per litre of blood serum. An elevated range of SGPT in the blood may suggest liver damage or other complications.
What is the SGPT test’s significance?
The SGPT blood test is often used to identify any type of disease or injury to the liver. A doctor would probably recommend this test sporadically for patients with liver diseases.
What does the SGPT chart indicate?
SGPT is mostly found in the liver, and when it is created in excess, it leaks into the bloodstream. A very high level of SGPT in the blood implies liver damage or other problems.
The usual range of SGPT is between 7 and 55 units per litre of blood serum.
How to interpret the SGPT test result?
The results of an SGPT test are expressed in units per litre. As a result, when analysing your data, you should know how many units of SGPT per litre are standard and what is regarded as abnormal.
There is no reason to be concerned if your SGPT level is between 7 and 55 units per litre.
What are the possible causes of elevated SGPT levels?
Some common reasons that lead to increased levels of SGPT are dermatomyositis (muscle inflammation), gallbladder inflammation, Epstein Barr virus, hepatitis C, obesity, heart attack, diabetes, coeliac disease, acute viral hepatitis A and B, alcoholism, old age and drug abuse.
Is there any preparation required for an SGPT test?
There are no preparations required for an SGPT test. You can just book the test and report at the lab. Once you get the report, consult with your physician to understand the results and determine the course of treatment.
How frequently should an SGPT test be performed?
Soon after patients notice some of the symptoms of liver disorders, the SGPT test should be performed. Also, getting routine check-ups done twice a year is advisable.
How does alcohol consumption affect SGPT levels?
Alcohol is one of the most significant liver-offending agents, often raising SGPT. Viral hepatitis B and C, fatty liver, some hepatotoxic medications, and autoimmune liver disorders are other important causes of increased SGPT.
How can SGPT levels be managed and maintained in the normal range?
Your liver and your body can both benefit from dietary and lifestyle changes. Be mindful of your diet and choose wholesome foods like eggs, oranges and tofu that are high in vitamin D.
Consume nutrient-dense, organic, and plant-based foods that can benefit your liver. Also, limit your salt intake and consume more colourful fruits and vegetables because they are high in antioxidants.
What is the role of diet and lifestyle in maintaining SGPT levels in the normal range?
Be mindful of what you eat and make better food choices to keep your SGPT levels normal. Eggs, oranges, tofu, soy milk, dairy products, green vegetables, mushrooms, and other foods high in vitamin D can be added to your diet.
Also, consume nutrient-dense, organic, and plant-based foods; they benefit your liver.
All the articles on HexaHealth are supported by verified medically-recognized sources such as; peer-reviewed academic research papers, research institutions, and medical journals. Our medical reviewers also check references of the articles to prioritize accuracy and relevance. Refer to our detailed editorial policy for more information.
- ALT (SGPT) Test [Internet]. Tufts Medical Center Community Care. [cited 2023 Jul 28].
- Robinson J. Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) Test and Results (aka SGPT Test) [Internet]. WebMD. 2021.
- Gowda S, Desai PB, Hull VV, Math AAK, Vernekar SN, Kulkarni SS. A review on laboratory liver function tests. The Pan African medical journal [Internet]. 2009;3(17):17.
- Cleveland Clinic. Cholecystitis: Gallbladder Inflammation, Symptoms, Treatment [Internet]. Cleveland Clinic. 2020.
- Dermatomyositis - Symptoms and causes [Internet]. Mayo Clinic. 2017.
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