Anorectal Surgery

Anorectal Surgery

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45 Minutes

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Anorectal Surgery

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What is Anorectal Surgery

Anorectal refers to the medical conditions related to the anus and rectum. The anorectal conditions are primarily caused due to abnormal growth of the tissues in the anus and rectum region. While these conditions are little discussed and can be embarrassing, living with them can be extremely painful. Every year, anorectal conditions affect millions of people. And not just that, anal or rectal cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer. 


The anus and rectum are vital parts to dispose of waste from the body. This is why anorectal conditions affect day-to-day activities like going to the bathroom. Surgeons perform anorectal surgery to treat these conditions by removing a portion of the anus, rectum, or part of the sigmoid colon. 

But what are the types of anorectal conditions, and how can they be diagnosed and treated? Read on to find out. 


Benefits of Anorectal Surgery

The Benefits of Anorectal surgery helps one 

  1. Respite from  pain due to Piles,  Anal Fissure, Anal FIssure, Anal Fistula.,Perianal Abscess problems.
  2.  They help one get respite from anaemia (blood loss )like condition, which is frequent in Pile

Who needs Anorectal Surgery?

Anorectal Surgery is needed for patients  suffering from 

Anal Fissure

  1. It is a small tear in the skin lining of the anal canal. The primary cause of anal fissure is hard stools due to constipation. It can also result from straining during bowel movements, chronic diarrhoea, anal sex, or any object inserted into the anus. You may experience the following symptoms:-
  2. Bright red blood during a bowel movement
  3. Severe sharp pain during and after a bowel movement
  4. Visible cut or tear in the area
  5. Most anal fissures can be cured without surgery with warm baths, medications, and sphincter relaxants, such as nitroglycerin ointments. Surgical therapies are performed only when other procedures do not heal the anal fissure. 

Anal Fistula

  1. An anal fistula, also called fistula-in-ano, is an abnormal passage that forms between the anal canal and the skin near the anus. The primary cause of anal fistula is an anal gland that develops a pus-filled infection (abscess). It can also occur with conditions such as Crohn’s disease, radiation therapy for cancer, or an injury to the anal canal. You may experience the following symptoms of anal fistula:-
  2. Fever and chills
  3. Pain and swelling around the anus
  4. Redness, soreness, or itching around the anal opening
  5. Pus drainage near the anal opening


  1. Haemorrhoids occur when the blood vessels and veins around your anus and lower spectrum become swollen and irritated due to extra pressure on the veins. Haemorrhoids can either be deep inside the rectum (internal) where you cannot see or feel them, or they may lie under the skin around your anus (external). You may get haemorrhoids if you are pregnant, strain during bowel movements, or have a family history of haemorrhoids. You may experience the following symptoms:-
  2. Bright red blood in your stool
  3. Swelling or itching around the anus
  4. Pain and irritation around the anus

Rectal Prolapse

  1. Rectal prolapse occurs when a part of the rectum bulges out of the anal opening. It is primarily caused by the weakening of the muscles that support the rectum, resulting from constipation, giving birth, or defects in the pelvis. The symptoms of rectal prolapse include:-
  2. Mucus in your stool
  3. Feeling a bulge from the anus while sneezing or coughing
  4. Abdominal pain or discomfort
  5. Blood from the rectum
  6. Anal pain, bleeding or itching
  7. Trouble controlling bowel movements 

Anal Cancer

  1. Cancer starts when abnormal cells mutate and grow out of control. These changed cells form a lump called a tumour. Anal cancers usually start in the cells that form the lining of the anus. It can spread to other layers of the anus and the sphincter muscles with time. The symptoms of anal cancer include:-
  2. Pain or pressure around the anus
  3. Leakage of fluid from the anus
  4. Bleeding
  5. A lump, swelling, or itching around the anus
  6. Changes in bowel movements
  7. Swollen lymph nodes in the anal area

Anal Condyloma


  1. Anal condyloma or anal warts are growths on the skin around the rectal opening caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The symptoms of anal condyloma are rare but may include:-
  2. Pain or discomfort
  3. Itching
  4. Bleeding
  5. Discharge from the anus
  6. Lump in the anal area

Pilonidal Disease

It is a chronic skin infection that affects the top of the gluteal cleft near the coccyx (tailbone). The condition is caused by loose hair penetrating the skin, leading to inflammations and infections. It is more common in men than women. Symptoms include:-

  1. Pain
  2. Redness
  3. Drainage of abscess in the area

Perianal Abscess

  1. A perianal abscess or rectal abscess is a tender red lump under the skin near the anus. It occurs when a cavity anus gets filled with pus. The symptoms include:-
  2. Constant pain
  3. Rectal discharge or bleeding
  4. Constipation
  5. Fatigue
  6. Fever
  7. Swelling around anus
  8. Chills




Expert Doctors

Dr. S K Tiwari

General Surgery

40+ Years




Dr. Neeraj Goyal

General Surgery

27+ Years




NABH Accredited Hospitals

Alpine Hospital

Alpine Hospital

4.91/5(91 Ratings)
Sector 15, Gurgaon
BH Salvas Hospital

BH Salvas Hospital

4.89/5(99 Ratings)
Najafgarh, Delhi
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Diagnosis of Anorectal Conditions

Diagnosis of Anorectal Conditions

Colorectal surgeons may use several tests to diagnose anorectal conditions. 

  1. Anoscopy: The doctor uses a small, tubular instrument with a light to view and examine the last few inches of the anal canal and the rectum. 
  2. Flexible Sigmoidoscopy: The doctor uses a small tubular instrument with a light to view and examine the end of your large intestine. 
  3. Colonoscopy: It is a similar procedure to flexible sigmoidoscopy that allows your doctor to view the entirety of your large intestine. The procedure is performed under moderate sedation.
  4. Biopsy: Your surgeon will remove a small piece of the tissue for examination under the microscope. 
  5. Ultrasound or MRI: These imaging tests help the doctor examine the structure and function of the anal canal, sphincter muscles, and rectum.

Procedure to treat Anotectal Disease

Several advanced procedures or surgeries can be used to treat anorectal conditions like 

  1.  Surgery for treating Pile-It is known as Haemorrhoidectomy, Stapler surgery for pile, Endoscopic Ablation for piles
  2.  Surgery for Pilonidal Sinus- It is known as Pilonidal Flap Surgery.
  3. Surgery for PeriAnal Abscess- It is known as Incision and Drainage.






Anorectal conditions can cause severe pain and discomfort in both men and women. However, your healthcare providers can help you get relief from these conditions by performing advanced anorectal surgeries. Consult your doctor when you experience the symptoms of the aforementioned conditions and discuss the treatment approaches for the same. 

If you are looking for a hassle-free surgical experience, HexaHealth is your ideal choice. HexaHealth is a patient-first platform that will help you throughout your surgical journey, from finding the right doctor and hospital to post-surgery recovery. So what are you waiting for? Get in touch with an HexaHealth expert TODAY!


Disclaimer: The information provided here is for educational and learning purposes only. It doesn't cover every medical condition and might not be relevant to your personal situation. This information isn't medical advice, isn't meant for diagnosing any condition, and shouldn't replace talking to a certified medical or healthcare professional.


About Authors

HexaHealth Care Team

HexaHealth Care Team brings you medical content covering many important conditions, procedures falling under different medical specialities. The content published is thoroughly reviewed by our panel of qualified doctors for its accuracy and relevance.

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