Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) Procedure
5 Minutes------ To ------
Rs 3000------ To ------
Medical Abortion, also known as non-surgical abortion, is one way to end early pregnancy using medications. The pills used for abortion are either taken orally or by placing them inside the vagina. It stops the growth of pregnancy and causes the inner lining of the uterus to shed.
Registered healthcare providers do it at a medical office, family planning clinics, or hospitals. The success rate of medical abortions in India is 95 to 98 per cent if executed properly and performed before nine weeks of gestation.
|Procedure Name||Medical Abortion|
|Alternative Name||Medical Termination of Pregnancy|
|Conditions Treated||Unwanted pregnancy|
|Benefits of the Surgery||No anaesthesia, High success rate, No surgery|
|Treated by||Gynaecologist and Obstetrician|
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What is Medical Abortion?
MTP stands for Medical Termination of Pregnancy. It refers to ending a pregnancy through medicines. It is usually performed during the early stages of pregnancy before the foetus has developed to a point where it can survive outside the womb.
A registered medical doctor profession carries out MTP following laws and regulations. The procedure is safe and legal. This procedure is not intended to be used as birth control but rather as a way to end a pregnancy when other options are not feasible.
Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
The female reproductive system works together to produce and support the development of a new life. Hormones help regulate the menstrual cycle, ovulation, and pregnancy. The female reproductive organ includes:
- Ovaries: These are the two small, oval-shaped organs on either side of the uterus. The ovaries produce and release eggs (ovulation) into the fallopian tubes for fertilization.
- Fallopian tubes: Fertilization of the egg by sperm usually occurs in the fallopian tube. These are two thin tubes that extend from the uterus towards the ovaries.
- Uterus: It is also known as the womb, a muscular organ that provides a safe and nourishing environment for a developing fetus.
- Cervix: The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. During childbirth, the cervix dilates to allow the baby to pass through.
- Vagina: The vagina is the muscular canal that connects the cervix to the outside of the body. It serves as the birth canal during childbirth and is also the site of sexual intercourse.
Who Needs Medical Abortion?
Getting an abortion done is a highly personal decision. Some of the reasons why women choose to have an abortion include:
- End Unwanted Pregnancy: To end an unwanted pregnancy, the doctor may consider a medical abortion rather than undergoing a surgical procedure only if the gestation age is less than 9 weeks.
- Complications During Pregnancy: Women with health complications that can make pregnancy life-threatening, such as severe heart or lung disease. In such cases, the doctor would recommend medical abortion based on the gestation age.
- Birth Defects: If a pregnant woman has a high risk of having a baby with a congenital or inherited disease, she may choose to terminate the pregnancy.
How is an MTP Performed?
Medical abortion is terminating a pregnancy without surgery or anaesthesia. The doctor will give an MTP Kit that contains two medicines, which involves taking it either orally or by placing it in the vagina.
The process utilises two drugs, Mifepristone and Misoprostol, which work together to induce an abortion.
MTP procedure involves the following:
- Mifepristone: This is the first medicine to be taken. Mifepristone (200 mg) is taken orally at the clinic or at home on the first day.
Mifepristone blocks progesterone, which results in thinning of the uterine lining and prevents embryo attachment.
- Misoprostol: It is the second medication. Misoprostol (200 mcg) includes four tablets and is usually taken 24-48 hours later.
It can be taken by placing it under the tongue or inserting it into the vagina. Misoprostol causes the uterus to contract, leading to bleeding and the expulsion of the embryo.
What to Expect Before and on the Day of the MTP Procedure?
The registered medical practitioner is responsible for giving the patient clear instructions and guidelines regarding the procedure and precautions. Below are some things a patient can expect before and on the day of the procedure:
Before MTP Procedure
- The doctor physically examines the patient to confirm the pregnancy.
- An ultrasound is done to check for pregnancy. It helps to determine the length of gestation.
- The patient will go through blood and urine tests.
- The doctor will explain the procedure in detail and discuss its risk and benefit so the patient can make an informed decision.
- The patient will be informed about the complications like pain and bleeding after the medicines are provided.
On the Day of the MTP Procedure
- The doctor will give you a tablet containing 200 milligrammes of Mifepristone and instructions on taking it.
- Four pills of Misoprostol (800 micrograms) would be placed in the vagina within 24-48 hours.
- From day 7 to day 14, a follow-up appointment would confirm whether the abortion was successful.
What to Expect After MTP Procedure?
Usually, medical abortion doesn’t need hospitalisation. The patient can go home within a couple of hours after the procedure. The patient may expect the following after medical abortion:
The Recovery Process in the Hospital
- Monitoring: Patients are monitored in the hospital for a short period to ensure that there are no complications, such as heavy bleeding or infection.
- Medication: Pain medication and antibiotics may be prescribed to help manage discomfort or prevent infection.
Recovery Process / Expectations After Hospital Discharge
- Rest: Get plenty of rest for the first few days after discharge.
- Pain Management: Over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen can be taken as directed to manage any discomfort.
- Physical Activity: Strenuous physical activity should be avoided for at least a week after the procedure, but light exercise such as walking is encouraged.
First Follow-up Appointment
The patient must visit the doctor after 7-14 days of the procedure to ensure the abortion is complete. The doctor examines the patient to check if she is healing properly.
The patient may need an ultrasound or a surgical abortion if the doctor detects an ongoing pregnancy. They also examine the uterine size and check for any signs of infection.
The doctor may ask the following questions:
- Does the patient still feel pregnant?
- Did the patient witness the expulsion of the gestational sac or the embryo?
- How much bleeding did the patient have?
- Whether the patient is still bleeding?
Benefits of MTP Procedure
Medical abortion is a safe and effective way to terminate a pregnancy. Here are some benefits:
- Non-invasive Procedure: Medical abortion is non-invasive and does not require surgery or anaesthesia. It is done by taking medication, which makes it less painful and more comfortable than surgical abortion.
- High Success Rate: It has a success rate of up to 98% within the recommended timeframe. This means that the procedure is highly effective in terminating a pregnancy.
- Lower Risk of Complications: Abortion through medicines is associated with a lower risk of complications, such as infection and bleeding, than surgical abortion.
- Privacy: It can be done at home, which provides more comfort and privacy to the patient.
- Low Cost: Medical abortion is generally less expensive than surgical abortion, making it a more affordable option for those who may not have access to health insurance or have limited financial resources.
Risks and Complications of MTP Procedure
Medical abortion is a relatively safe procedure; just like any other procedure, it has few complications. The risks and complications of medical abortion include:
- Heavy Vaginal Bleeding: This is one of the most common side effects of the MTP procedure. While some bleeding is expected, if it is excessive or prolonged, it may indicate a complication.
- Incomplete Abortion: In some cases, the MTP procedure may not successfully terminate the pregnancy. It can lead to an incomplete abortion, which may require further medical attention to complete the termination.
- Infection: It is a potential risk of the MTP procedure. Signs of infection may include fever, chills, and abdominal pain.
- Fever: A low-grade fever is a common side effect of the MTP procedure and is usually not a cause for concern.
- Allergic Reactions: The medications used in the MTP procedure can have some allergic reactions. They are rare but can occur. The symptoms may include hives, difficulty breathing, and swelling of the face or throat.
When is Consultation with the Doctor Needed?
The patient must contact the doctor immediately if she notices any of the following symptoms:
- Heavy bleeding
- Fever lasting for more than 24 hours
- Severe abdominal back pain
- Foul-smelling vaginal discharge
- If periods didn’t come after two months
Risks of Delayed MTP Procedure
Some risks are associated with a delay in medical abortion, typically over ten weeks of pregnancy. These risks include :
- Increased Physical Pain: As the gestation period increases, so does the size of the foetus, which can make the procedure more painful and uncomfortable.
- Higher Risk of Complications: The longer the pregnancy has progressed, the higher the risk of complications such as heavy bleeding, infection, or incomplete abortion.
- Reduced Effectiveness: The effectiveness of the medical abortion procedure decreases as the pregnancy advances. Medical abortion is effective only till 9 weeks of pregnancy. The delayed procedure may require additional interventions, such as a surgical abortion.
Cost of MTP Procedure
The cost of Medical Abortion ranges from ₹3,000 to ₹8,000. The cost varies based on the following factors:
- The fee for consultation
- Diagnostic examinations related to Medical Abortion Risks Recovery
- The type of surgical procedure required
- Admission fee
- The patient's current medical condition
- Age of the patient
- Type of hospital chosen for the procedure
- The type of room preferred for recovery
- The location or city where the hospital is located
|Procedure Name||Cost Value|
|Medical Abortion||₹3,000 to ₹8,000|
A woman can decide to have an abortion on her own without needing permission from anyone else. It's important to talk to a doctor about any worries or questions. They can help you during this challenging time.
HexaHealth can provide guidance and support to individuals who are considering terminating their pregnancy. They can offer information on the different methods of abortion, answer any questions about the process, help ensure that the termination process is done safely and effectively, and provide follow-up care as needed.
To read more about abortion, you can visit the following:
|Is Abortion Painful||Is Abortion Legal in India|
|Safe Abortion Guidelines for Women||Types of Abortion Procedures|
|Medical Abortion vs Surgical Abortion||Late Term Abortion|
|Home Remedies for Abortion||Difference between Miscarriage and Abortion|
FAQs for Medical Abortion
What is a medical abortion?
Medical abortion is a technique to end an early pregnancy with medicine. It is commonly referred to as a non-surgical abortion. The medicines used to induce abortion might be administered orally or intravaginally. It prevents the development of pregnancy and triggers the shedding of the inner lining of the uterus.
How is a medical abortion performed?
What are the benefits of a medical abortion?
If done before nine weeks of gestation, medical abortion is very successful. Medical abortion has several advantages, such as:
- It can be carried out the moment the woman learns she is pregnant.
- Once the cramping and bleeding start, the patient can go back home.
- Anaesthesia is not required.
- Compared to a surgical treatment, a medical abortion could feel more natural.
What are the benefits of a medical abortion?
Women must know the safe guidelines for abortion. Medical abortion is a process that is generally safe and has minimal problems, like any other procedure. A few risks of medical abortion include:
- Heavy vaginal bleeding
- Digestive pain
- Incomplete abortion
When should someone get an abortion?
The patient can undergo medical abortion as soon as she learns about her pregnancy. It is significantly safer and most effective during the first trimester (up to nine weeks) of pregnancy. The healthcare provider uses an ultrasound to determine if the patient is pregnant and, if yes, how long she has been pregnant.
What are the disadvantages of medical abortion?
There are some disadvantages of medical abortion, such as:
- Heavy bleeding for a few days.
- Medical abortion is only recommended to be performed within the first trimester.
- The process is relatively longer. Medical abortion can take a few hours to a few days to terminate the pregnancy, unlike surgical abortion, which is a same-day procedure.
Can medical abortion cause infertility in women?
Medical abortions would not affect future pregnancies unless there were any complications. Usually, women regain their pre-pregnancy fertility immediately after the abortion procedure. In some cases, they may experience a slight delay in the return of their menstrual cycles.
Is medical abortion safe?
Medical abortion is completely safe when it is performed under the supervision of qualified practitioners. Research shows that abortion performed in the first trimester of pregnancy is significantly safer than childbirth. So, the women undergoing abortion can rest assured about its safety.
I’m breastfeeding. Is it safe for me to have a medication abortion?
It is safe to undergo a medical abortion while you are breastfeeding. However, your baby may get diarrhoea within 24 hours if you breastfeed your baby after taking misoprostol.
What is abortion cost in Chennai?
All the articles on HexaHealth are supported by verified medically-recognized sources such as; peer-reviewed academic research papers, research institutions, and medical journals. Our medical reviewers also check references of the articles to prioritize accuracy and relevance. Refer to our detailed editorial policy for more information.
Updated on : 6 November 2023
HexaHealth Care Team
HexaHealth Care Team brings you medical content covering many important conditions, procedures falling under different medical specialities. The content published is thoroughly reviewed by our panel of qualified doctors for its accuracy and relevance.
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