Hepatic Vein Stenting for Budd-Chiari Syndrome

Hepatic Vein Stenting

Treatment Duration

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60 Minutes

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90 Minutes

Treatment Cost

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1,50,000

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3,00,000

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Hepatic Vein Stenting

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Hepatic vein stenting is a minimally invasive procedure that can be used to treat Budd-Chiari Syndrome. A small metal mesh tube, called a stent, is put in the blocked vein during this procedure to help keep it open and restore blood flow to the liver.   

The effectiveness of the hepatic vein stenting video in treating Budd-Chiari Syndrome is noteworthy, as it offers high technical success rates and symptom relief. Despite its benefits, the procedure does come with certain risks, including bleeding, infection, and stent migration. Read on to explore everything about this procedure in detail!

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What is Hepatic Vein Stenting?

Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is when a clot (lump of blood cells) blocks or narrows the hepatic veins (veins that drain the liver). This blockage sends blood back into the liver, causing it to enlarge. The spleen (an organ on the upper left side of the abdomen that aids in the fight against infection by filtering the blood) may also get enlarged due to this. 

It is often considered a rare liver disease that occurs when obstruction of the hepatic veins drains the liver. Left untreated can lead to liver damage, liver failure, and even death. Hepatic vein stenting treats Budd-Chiari syndrome by opening up the blocked veins and restoring normal blood flow to the liver.

Hepatic vein stenting is an effective treatment option with high success rates and low complication rates. It is frequently indicated for individuals who have significant symptoms and have not responded to other therapies, such as medicine. With appropriate medical follow-up, hepatic vein stenting can help improve liver function and quality of life for patients with BCS.

Anatomy and Physiology of Hepatic Vein

The hepatic vein is a major blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from the liver to the heart. It is formed by the fusion of several smaller veins that drain blood from different liver parts. The hepatic vein is located in the posterior part of the liver. It runs alongside the hepatic artery and the bile duct.

The liver is a vital organ that conducts numerous processes such as detoxification, nutrition metabolism, and bile generation. The hepatic vein plays a pivotal role in maintaining the proper functioning of the liver by carrying away the deoxygenated blood used by the liver cells.

The hepatic vein is also responsible for removing waste products from the liver and transporting them to the heart for elimination from the body. The blood that flows through the hepatic vein is high in nutrients such as glucose and amino acids, which are necessary for the body's metabolic activities to work properly.

Who Needs Hepatic Vein Stenting?

The suitable candidates for hepatic vein stenting for Budd-Chiari syndrome are individuals who have symptomatic obstruction of the hepatic veins, such as:

  1. Severe abdominal pain
  2. Ascites (fluid accumulation in the abdomen)
  3. Enlargement of the liver
  4. Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
  5. Liver failure

Additionally, the following factors may also be considered when determining the candidacy for the procedure:

  1. The underlying cause of the Budd-Chiari syndrome
  2. The extent and location of the hepatic vein obstruction
  3. Any other medical conditions may increase the risk of complications from the procedure.

Conditions Treated with Hepatic Vein Stenting

Hepatic vein stenting is typically recommended for patients with severe symptoms or complications with Budd-Chiari syndrome, such as liver failure or ascites (abdominal fluid buildup). 

Some of the conditions which can be cured with hepatic vein stenting include:

  1. Acute Liver Failure is a sudden onset of liver dysfunction that can lead to life-threatening complications. It can be caused by viral hepatitis, drug toxicity, or other factors. 
  2. Chronic Liver Disease refers to ongoing liver damage that can lead to scarring and cirrhosis. It can be caused by viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse, or other factors. 
  3. Portal Hypertension refers to high blood pressure in the portal vein, which carries blood from the digestive organs to the liver. It can be caused by liver disease or other factors. 
  4. Ascites: This fluid buildup in the abdomen can be caused by liver disease or other factors. 
  5. Hepatic Encephalopathy: This is a syndrome in which toxins accumulate in the brain due to liver failure. It can cause drowsiness, confusion, and other neurological symptoms. 
  6. Liver Cirrhosis: This is late-stage liver damage that can be caused by chronic liver disease. It involves scarring and a loss of liver function.

How is Hepatic Vein Stenting Performed?

Understanding how hepatic vein stenting for Budd-Chiari Syndrome is performed is important because it provides insights into the treatment process, its benefits, and potential risks. This knowledge can help patients make informed decisions about their health and better prepare for the procedure.

Hepatic vein blockage treatment typically involves placing a stent (a small metal tube) into the blocked hepatic vein to help restore blood flow and relieve pressure in the liver.

The procedure generally takes about one to two hours, although it can occasionally last longer, depending on the case.

  1. The procedure of hepatic vein stenting includes the following steps:
  2. The patient is made to lie on the operation table in a supine position, which means lying on their back with their face and torso pointing upwards.    
  3. Local anaesthesia is administered to the patient to keep him/her comfortable during the surgery.
  4. A small incision is made in the groyne, and a catheter is placed into the femoral vein.
  5. The catheter is guided into the hepatic vein using fluoroscopy, and a balloon is inflated to expand the blocked section.
  6. The stent, a small mesh-like tube made of metal or plastic, is then inserted to keep the vein open.
  7. Once the stent is in place, the balloon is deflated and withdrawn, and the catheter is removed from the vein.
  8. The groyne incision is closed with a stitch or glue.

Following the process, the patient will be monitored in the hospital for many hours to ensure there are no complications. Most patients will return home the next day or on the same day and resume normal activities within a few days.

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What to expect before and on the day of Hepatic Vein Stenting?

Patients may undergo imaging tests before the stenting procedure and receive blood thinners. On the procedure day, the patient undergoes sedation and local anaesthesia before a small tube is inserted into the blocked vein to restore blood flow.

Before Hepatic Vein Stenting 

  1. Blood tests may also assess the patient's liver function, clotting factors, and overall health. Assume the patient has a history of blood clots or is at risk of acquiring them. In that case, they may be prescribed blood thinners before the procedure to prevent further clots from forming.
  2. The patient will be instructed to prepare for the procedure, which may include fasting for a certain period before the procedure and stopping certain medications that may increase the chances of bleeding.
  3. The patient will also be informed of any risks and complications associated with the procedure, such as bleeding, infection, damage to the blood vessels or other organs, or allergic reactions to the contrast dye used during the procedure.
  4. The patient may meet with the interventional radiologist who will perform the procedure to discuss any concerns or questions.

On the Day of Hepatic Vein Stenting 

On the day of hepatic vein stenting for Budd-Chiari Syndrome, patients are usually instructed to fast for several hours before the procedure. This decreases the possibility of difficulties during the surgery and assures the patient's stomach is empty if the anaesthetic is required.

  1. Patients arriving at a hospital or clinic will be led to a waiting area, where they will be given instructions and asked to change into a hospital gown. They will also be hooked to sensors that record crucial signs, including blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation.
  2. The patient will also be made to ask to sign the consent document before the procedure by a healthcare provider.
  3. The patient receives a sedative to help them relax before the surgery. They will, however, be cognizant throughout the procedure. In addition, they will be given a topical anaesthetic to numb the area where the stent will be placed.

What to Expect After Hepatic Vein Stenting?

After taking the hepatic vein stenting for Budd-Chiari Syndrome, patients will typically be monitored closely to ensure that they are recovering well and that the stent is functioning properly. This may involve a follow-up appointment with their healthcare provider, imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI, and blood tests to check liver function.

The Recovery Process in the Hospital

A patient can expect the following things during the recovery process in the hospital.

  1. Following the hepatic vein stenting procedure, patients are usually observed in the hospital for 24 to 48 hours to detect any possible complications. 
  2. The healthcare provider will closely monitor the patient's condition, vital signs, and symptoms to ensure that they remain stable and that the procedure has been successful.
  3. Patients might experience some discomfort or pain at the location where the catheter was inserted. 
  4. Patients may sometimes need to stay in the hospital overnight for observation, particularly if they have underlying liver disease or other medical conditions. However, many patients can go home on the same day as the procedure.

Recovery Process/Expectations After Hospital Discharge

Once the patient is discharged from the hospital, 

  1. The patient may experience some discomfort or pain for a few days. 
  2. Pain relief medication may be continued or prescribed as necessary. 
  3. The patient will be advised to avoid any strenuous activity or heavy lifting for a period of time after the procedure. 
  4. All the instructions provided by the doctor need to be followed.

First Follow-up Appointment

The patient will typically have a follow-up appointment with their healthcare provider one to two weeks after the procedure. During this appointment, 

  1. The healthcare provider will evaluate the patient's progress and check for any signs of complications. 
  2. The patient may undergo imaging tests, such as an ultrasound or CT scan, to assess the function of the stent and ensure that blood flow to the liver is normal. 
  3. The healthcare provider will also provide the patient with any necessary instructions for ongoing care and follow-up appointments.

Benefits of Hepatic Vein Stenting

Hepatic vein stenting is a minimally invasive procedure that can be used to treat Budd-Chiari Syndrome. This procedure has several benefits for patients. Some of these benefits are as follows.

  1. Restores Blood Flow: Hepatic vein stenting restores blood flow to the liver, reduces abdominal pain and fatigue symptoms and improves liver function.  This can improve the patient's quality of life and overall health.
  2. Reduces Symptoms: Budd-Chiari Syndrome can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, swelling, and fatigue. By improving blood flow and reducing pressure in the liver, hepatic vein stenting can help alleviate these symptoms. This can improve the patient's comfort and make it easier to carry out daily activities.
  3. Minimally Invasive: Hepatic vein stenting is a minimally invasive procedure that involves a small incision and a catheter inserted into the groyne area. This results in less discomfort, fewer problems, and a faster recovery period compared to standard surgery. Additionally, the use of local anaesthesia and sedation instead of general anaesthesia makes it a safer option for patients who may not tolerate general anaesthesia well.
  4. High Success Rate: Hepatic vein stenting has a high success rate in restoring blood flow to the liver and improving symptoms in patients with Budd-Chiari Syndrome. This high success rate makes it an effective treatment option for patients with this condition.
  5. Low Risk of Complications: Complications associated with hepatic vein stenting are generally low, and those that do occur are typically mild and can be managed with appropriate medical care.However, as with any medical procedure, there is always a risk of complications, such as bleeding or infection, and patients should discuss the risks and benefits with their doctor.
  6. Short Hospital Stay: In most cases, patients can return home or resume normal activities after a brief hospital stay or on the same day. This means less time spent in the hospital and less disruption to the patient's daily life.

Risks and Complications of Hepatic Vein Stenting

Although hepatic vein stenting is generally considered a safe and effective treatment option for Budd-Chiari Syndrome, there are some risks and potential complications associated with the procedure. As a result, patients must be advised of these risks and discuss them with their healthcare professionals prior to undergoing surgery.

  1. Bleeding: One potential risk associated with hepatic vein stenting is bleeding. This can occur at the catheter's insertion site or be more widespread if the liver is damaged during the procedure. In some cases, bleeding may require a blood transfusion or additional medical interventions.
  2. Infection: Any time a medical procedure is performed, there is a risk of infection. Infection can occur at the catheter's insertion site or be more widespread. In some cases, the infection may require antibiotics or other medical interventions.
  3. Stent Migration: The stent used during hepatic vein stenting may migrate or move from its intended location. This can cause blockages or other complications that may require additional medical interventions.
  4. Re-narrowing of the Vein: The hepatic vein may sometimes re-narrow after the stent is placed. This can occur due to scar tissue formation or other factors. If this occurs, additional medical interventions may be necessary.
  5. Allergic Reaction: Some people may become allergic to the contrast dye used during the operation. This can result in hives, irritation, or difficulty breathing. A severe allergic reaction may necessitate immediate medical intervention in rare situations.
  6. Kidney Damage: The contrast dye used during hepatic vein stenting can also cause damage to the kidneys in some patients. This is more frequent among people who have kidney difficulties or are at risk of kidney injury.
  7. Blood Clots: Although the purpose of the procedure is to remove blood clots from the hepatic vein, there is a risk of blood clots forming during or after the procedure. These blood clots can cause serious complications such as pulmonary embolism or stroke.

When to Consult with the Doctor?

Consultation with a doctor is necessary at various stages of hepatic vein stenting for Budd-Chiari Syndrome. 

  1. Firstly, before the procedure, patients must discuss the treatment's benefits and risks with their doctors. 
  2. Secondly, if the patient experiences any unusual symptoms during the procedure, they should immediately notify the medical team. 
  3. Lastly, after the procedure, patients must be closely monitored for any complications or signs of infection. Patients should contact their doctors immediately if any unusual symptoms occur after discharge. 

Overall, consultation with a doctor throughout the entire hepatic vein stenting process is crucial to ensure the best possible outcomes and address any concerns or complications.

Risk of Delayed Hepatic Vein Stenting

Delayed hepatic vein stenting for Budd-Chiari Syndrome may increase the chance of complications and negatively affect the patient's health. Here are some of the risks of delayed hepatic vein stenting:

  1. Liver Damage: Budd-Chiari Syndrome can cause liver damage because of decreased blood supply to the liver. Delayed hepatic venous stenting might aggravate liver damage and lead to serious complications, including cirrhosis or liver failure. 
  2. Portal Hypertension: Budd-Chiari Syndrome can cause portal hypertension and increased blood pressure in the portal vein. Delayed hepatic vein stenting can exacerbate portal hypertension and raise the risk of consequences such as ascites, oesophagal varices, and hepatic encephalopathy.
  3. Clot Progression: Delayed hepatic vein stenting can increase the risk of clot progression in the hepatic veins, leading to more severe complications such as pulmonary embolism or stroke.
  4. Reduced Quality of Life: Budd-Chiari Syndrome can cause a variety of symptoms, including stomach pain, oedema, lethargy, and jaundice. Delayed hepatic vein stenting can prolong these symptoms and reduce the patient's quality of life.
  5. Need for Liver Transplant: In some cases, delayed hepatic vein stenting can lead to irreversible liver damage and the need for a liver transplant. A liver transplant is a complex and expensive procedure with risks and complications.
  6. Higher Healthcare Costs: Delayed hepatic vein stenting can lead to higher healthcare costs due to increased hospitalisation, use of medications, and the need for additional medical interventions.
  7. Risk of Death: Delayed hepatic vein stenting can lead to severe complications such as liver failure, portal hypertension, or pulmonary embolism, which can be life-threatening in some cases.

Cost of Hepatic Vein Stenting

The cost of hepatic vein stenting for Budd-Chiari Syndrome can range from ₹ 1,50,000 to ₹ 3,00,000. This cost varies depending on various factors, such as the geographical location, the healthcare provider, the extent of the patient's medical needs, and the type of insurance coverage the patient has.

Patients are advised to check with their healthcare and insurance providers to obtain more information about the procedure's costs and determine their insurance coverage. Financial assistance programs may also be available for patients who cannot afford the procedure or are underinsured.

Takeaway

Hepatic vein stenting has emerged as a promising treatment option for patients suffering from Budd-Chiari Syndrome. If left untreated, this rare but serious disorder can cause significant liver damage and even liver failure. The stenting procedure has proven to be an effective and safe way to restore blood flow to the liver, reducing symptoms and improving patients' overall quality of life.

While the procedure carries some risks, including bleeding and infection, these are relatively uncommon and can be managed with appropriate medical care. Patients who undergo hepatic vein stenting can typically resume their day-to-day activities within a day or two and experience significant symptom relief within weeks.

We at HexaHealth provide effective consultation and medical assistance to help you get the best treatments. Get in touch with our expert professionals today and learn more!

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Hepatic vein stenting is a medical procedure in which a small, flexible tube called a stent is inserted into a blocked or narrowed hepatic vein in the liver. The stent helps to keep the vein open and restore blood flow to the liver.

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Hepatic vein stenting is performed to treat Budd Chiari Syndrome, a rare disorder in which the hepatic veins become blocked or narrowed, leading to liver damage and failure. The procedure is intended to improve blood flow to the liver and alleviate symptoms such as fatigue, abdominal pain, and jaundice.

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Hepatic vein stenting is generally considered a safer and more effective treatment for Budd Chiari Syndrome as compared to other invasive procedures such as surgery. It is less invasive, has a lower risk of complications, and can be performed on an outpatient basis in many cases.

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Good candidates for hepatic vein stenting are patients who have a narrowed or blocked hepatic vein as a result of Budd-Chiari syndrome and who are not able to manage their symptoms effectively with medication alone. 

Patients who have severe liver damage or who have other medical conditions that make the procedure risky may not be good candidates.

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Symptoms that indicate the need for hepatic vein stenting include fatigue, abdominal pain, jaundice, fluid buildup in the abdomen, and enlarged liver and spleen. These symptoms may worsen over time if left untreated.

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Hepatic vein stenting is performed using a catheter that is inserted into a blood vessel in the groyne. The catheter is guided to the hepatic vein using imaging technology, and the stent is then inserted through the catheter and expanded to keep the vein open.

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Risks and complications associated with hepatic vein stenting include bleeding, infection, and damage to the blood vessel or surrounding tissues. There is also a risk that the stent may become dislodged or block the vein again.

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The success rate of hepatic vein stenting varies depending on the severity of the patient's condition and other factors. In general, studies have shown that the procedure successfully restored the blood flow to the liver in over 90% of cases.

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Hepatic vein stenting is considered an effective treatment for Budd-Chiari syndrome, with studies showing improvement in symptoms and liver function in the majority of patients who undergo the procedure.

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The procedure itself typically takes between one and two hours to complete. Recovery time varies depending on the patient's individual circumstances, but most patients are able to return to their normal activities within a few days to a week after the procedure. It may take several weeks or months for symptoms to improve fully.

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Hepatic vein stenting is typically performed under conscious sedation or general anaesthesia, depending on the patient's individual needs and preferences.

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Recovery time after hepatic vein stenting varies depending on the individual patient and their specific case, but most patients are able to return to their normal activities within a few days to a week after the procedure.

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There are alternative treatments for hepatic vein obstruction besides stenting, including medication, angioplasty, and surgical procedures such as shunt placement or liver transplantation. The best treatment option will depend on the patient's individual case and the severity of their condition.

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To prepare for hepatic vein stenting, patients may be instructed to stop taking certain medications or fasting for a period of time before the procedure. It is important to follow all pre-procedure instructions provided by the healthcare team.

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In many cases, hepatic vein stenting can be performed on an outpatient basis, meaning that patients do not need to stay overnight in the hospital. However, some patients may need to stay in the hospital for a short period of observation after the procedure.

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After hepatic vein stenting, patients will need regular follow-up appointments with their healthcare team to monitor their progress and assess the effectiveness of the stent.

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Yes, hepatic vein stenting can often be performed on an outpatient basis, allowing patients to return home on the same day as the procedure.

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Patients who undergo hepatic vein stenting will typically need to have regular imaging tests to monitor the stent and ensure that it remains open and functioning properly.

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Risks and complications associated with hepatic vein stenting include bleeding, infection, damage to surrounding tissues, and the possibility of the stent becoming dislodged or blocked.

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Long-term outcomes for patients who undergo hepatic vein stenting for Budd-Chiari syndrome can vary depending on the severity of their condition and other individual factors. 

In general, the procedure has been shown to be effective in restoring blood flow to the liver and improving symptoms and liver function in many patients.

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The experience of hepatic vein stenting can vary depending on the severity of Budd-Chiari syndrome. Patients with more severe cases may require a longer recovery time and may experience more complications than those with milder cases.

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A hepatic vein stenting video may be available from a healthcare provider or medical facility that performs the procedure. Patients should speak with their healthcare team to determine if a video or other educational materials are available.

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  1. Myth: Hepatic vein stenting is a risky procedure and has a low success rate.
    Fact: Hepatic vein stenting is a safe and effective procedure with a success rate of up to 90%. The risk of complications is relatively low when the procedure is performed by an experienced surgeon in a specialised centre.
  2. Myth: Patients with Budd-Chiari Syndrome can manage their condition with medications alone and do not need stenting.
    Fact: Medications can help manage the symptoms of Budd-Chiari Syndrome, but hepatic vein stenting is often necessary to restore blood flow and prevent further liver damage. 
  3. Myth: Hepatic vein stenting is a painful and invasive procedure that requires a long hospital stay.
    Fact: It is a minimally invasive procedure that is performed under local anaesthesia. The procedure usually takes 1-2 hours, and most patients can go home the next day.
  4. Myth: Hepatic vein stenting is a one-time procedure, and patients will not require any follow-up care.
    Fact: Patients who undergo hepatic vein stenting will require regular follow-up care to monitor their progress and manage any postoperative complications. Follow-up care may include imaging tests, medication adjustments, and lifestyle modifications.
  5. Myth: Patients who undergo hepatic vein stenting will not be able to live a normal life.
    Fact: Most patients who undergo hepatic vein stenting can resume their day-to-day activities within a few weeks after the procedure. 
  6. Myth: Hepatic vein stenting is only for patients with advanced or severe cases of Budd-Chiari Syndrome.
    Fact: Hepatic vein stenting can be used to treat patients with varying degrees of Budd-Chiari Syndrome, from mild to severe cases. Early intervention with stenting can prevent the progression of the disease and reduce the risk of complications.
  7. Myth: Patients who undergo hepatic vein stenting will need to take blood thinners lifetime.
    Fact: While some patients may require blood thinners a couple of times after the procedure to prevent blood clots, most patients can eventually discontinue the use of blood thinners. 
  8. Myth: Hepatic vein stenting is not covered by insurance and is, therefore, not an affordable option for most patients.
    Fact: Many insurance providers cover the cost of hepatic vein stenting for Budd-Chiari Syndrome, and financial assistance programs may be available to help patients manage the cost of treatment.
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References

All the articles on HexaHealth are supported by verified medically-recognized sources such as; peer-reviewed academic research papers, research institutions, and medical journals. Our medical reviewers also check references of the articles to prioritize accuracy and relevance. Refer to our detailed editorial policy for more information.


  1. Hitawala AA, Gupta V. Budd-Chiari Syndrome [Internet]. PubMed. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 [cited 2023 Jun 6].link
  2. Zhang Y, Xie P, Yang C, Yang H, Liu J, Zhou G, et al. Percutaneous stenting of left hepatic vein followed by Ex vivo Liver Resection and Autotransplantation in a patient with hepatic alveolar echinococcosis with Budd-Chiari syndrome. International Journal of Surgery Case Reports [Internet]. 2020 [cilink
  3. 3.Aydinli M. Budd-Chiari syndrome: Etiology, pathogenesis and diagnosis. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2007;13(19):2693.link
  4. Budd-Chiari syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment & Outlook [Internet]. Cleveland Clinic.link
  5. Oldhafer KJ, Frerker M, Prokop M, Lang H, Böker K, Pichlmayr R. Two-Step Procedure in Budd-Chiari Syndrome With Severe Intrahepatic Vena Cava Stenosis: Vena Cava Stenting and Portocaval Shunt. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 1998 Jul;93(7):1165–6.link

Reviewer

Dr. Aman Priya Khanna

Dr. Aman Priya Khanna

MBBS, DNB General Surgery, Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery, FIAGES

12 Years Experience

Dr Aman Priya Khanna is a well-known General Surgeon, Proctologist and Bariatric Surgeon currently associated with HealthFort Clinic, Health First Multispecialty Clinic in Delhi. He has 12 years of experience in General Surgery and worke...View More

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