Basic Eye Disorders

Medically Reviewed by Dr. Aman Priya Khanna
Written by Hexahealth Care Team, last updated on 24 November 2023
Basic Eye Disorders

Eye problems or diseases can impact people of all age groups, including children and the elderly. A visual disturbance produced by a defect or abnormal functioning of the eye is known as an eye disorder. Some eye ailments like red eyes, refractive disorders, retinal abnormalities, conjunctivitis, glaucoma etc, cause clouded vision, with severe cases leading to blindness.

There are a plethora of eye disorders and vision issues. Although some diseases are incurable, some are treatable. Maintaining eye health requires leading a healthy lifestyle and visiting an eye doctor regularly or when vision changes. When severe eye disorders aren’t treated in time, it can lead to irreversible vision loss.  Some of the most common disorders are as follows:-

  1. Amblyopia
  2. Glaucoma
  3. Cataracts
  4. Strabismus
  5. Diabetic retinopathy
  6. Red eyes
  7. Retinal abnormalities
  8. Refractive disorders
  9. Macular degeneration
  10. Diabetic eye issues
  11. Conjunctivitis 

Basic Eye Disorders


Also called Lazy Eyes, Amblyopia is a condition in which the vision of one or both eyes gets impaired due to atypical visual development during childhood, and the weak or lazy eye moves inside or outward frequently. This disorder can develop from infancy to the age of seven. It is the most common cause of vision loss in kids. 


Some symptoms of amblyopia include:

  1. Uncontrolled eyes movement
  2. Poor coordination between both the eyes
  3. Staring blankly
  4. Tilting the head
  5. Abnormal findings in vision screening test
  6. Depth perception issues 


The curative measures for amblyopia include:

  1. Eyedrops
  2. Eye Patches
  3. Contact lenses or Glasses
  4. Bangerter Filter
  5. Surgery in case of droopy eyelids or cataracts


Glaucoma is an eye illness caused by abnormally high fluid pressure in the eye. The pressure damages the optic nerve, which has an impact on how visual data is delivered to the brain. 

If left untreated, it can cause vision loss and blindness in one or both eyes. It is a condition that typically runs in families and can be divided into two categories. 

  1. Open-angle: It's a type of glaucoma that progresses slowly, and symptoms may not appear until the condition is advanced. 
  2. Closed-angle: This condition can strike without warning. It's excruciatingly painful and quickly results in eyesight loss.


Symptoms of glaucoma include:

  1. Pain or pressure in the eyes
  2. Headaches
  3. Reddening of eyes
  4. Halos around light
  5. Blurry vision
  6. Tunnel vision
  7. Vomiting
  8. Nausea


The treatment of glaucoma includes:

  1. Medicines
  2. Laser treatment 
  3. Surgical methods such as:
  4. Trabeculectomy
  5. Glaucoma Implant Surgery
  6. Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery (MIGS)


A cataract causes the eye's lens to become obscured. Hazy lenses might appear in one or both eyes. Cataracts are the most common cause of blindness and irreversible vision loss. Cataracts can occur at any age and are occasionally present from birth, but they are more frequent in persons over 50.


The symptoms of the cataract include:

  1. Cloudy, or dull vision
  2. It becomes difficult to see in the dark
  3. Sensitivity to light
  4. It's usual to see "halos" around lights.
  5. Prescriptions for eyeglasses or contact lenses change regularly.
  6. Fading or yellowing of the colour
  7. Double vision in one eye


The treatment of cataracts includes surgery which involves removing the clouded lens and replacing it with a prosthetic lens. Some of them are:

  1. Phacoemulsification
  2. Extracapsular Surgery
  3. Intraocular Lens Implant
  4. Femtosecond Laser


Strabismus, also known as crossed eyes. It is a state in which there is an imbalance in the positioning of the eyes. Generally, it is found in children. Patients suffering from strabismus face difficulty in controlling their eye position and movement. There are four types of strabismus depending on the direction of an eye. They are:

  1. Esotropia (cross in)
  2. Exotropia (turn out)
  3. Hypertropia (upward)
  4. Hypotropia (downward)


Symptoms of strabismus include:

  1. Blurry vision
  2. Eyestrain
  3. Headache
  4. Reduced vision
  5. Light sensitivity


The curative measures include:

  1. Eye exercises
  2. Contact lenses
  3. Medicines
  4. Patching

Surgical Options include two methods

  1. Eye Muscle Recession: In this method, the muscle is removed from the surface of the eye and reattached further back on the eyeball. 
  2. Eye Muscle Resection: In this method, the muscle is separated from its attachment site, a small piece is removed, and the shortened muscle is reattached to its original spot.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy affects the eyes and is caused by the complications of diabetes. It is caused by damage to the retina's light-sensitive tissue's blood vessels. Any person who is suffering from diabetes (type 1 or 2) may develop this condition. At first, diabetic retinopathy may cause no or minor vision problems.  


  1. Vision impairment
  2. Blurry vision
  3. Floaters
  4. Fluctuation in vision


  1. Early Stage:

    1. Diabetes management

    2. Controlling blood sugar level  

  2. Advanced Stage:
    1. Focal laser treatment
    2. Scatter laser treatment
    3. Vitrectomy
    4. Medications such as ranibizumab, bevacizumab etc.

Red Eyes

Red eyes are a common ailment that affects either one or both eyes. It is also known as 'Bloodshot eyes'. In this condition, the blood vessels on the surface of the eye get dilated due to the infection or irritation and causing redness in the eyes. 

Signs and Symptoms:

  1. Light sensitivity
  2. Blurry vision
  3. Dry eyes
  4. Pain
  5. Irritation in eyes
  6. Itching sensation
  7. Swelling
  8. Burning sensation in eyes


Usually, this condition does not pose a long-term effect on the eyes and is easily curable if proper treatment is done at the right time. Although some curative measures include:

  1. Eyedrops
  2. Oral medications
  3. Antibiotics for bacterial infection
  4. Creams and ointments

Refraction Disorders

Refraction disorders are caused when the eyes fail to focus light evenly on the retina. It deviates from the correct position of image formation on the retina. When the shape of the cornea or the length of the eyeball changes, this condition develops.

These are the two primary parts of the eye that allow light to bend for image formation at the correct point. Increased exposure to screens and computers is the main reason for this in children.

  1. Nearsightedness: An image formation takes place before the retina. A person can only see objects which are close clearly, while distant objects appear blurry.
  2. Farsightedness: It is the opposite of nearsightedness. In this case, a person can see faraway objects clearly, but nearby objects are hazy because the image forms behind the retina. 
  3. Astigmatism: The distant and nearby vision of a person is affected.
  4. Presbyopia: Due to growing age, normal eyesight becomes hazy and is called Presbyopia.

Signs and Symptoms

The following are the main signs of this eye disorder:

  1. Blurry vision
  2. Double vision
  3. Eyestrain
  4. Headache
  5. Trouble visualizing objects nearby or far based on the type of refractive error


  1. Eye-glasses and Lenses: It corrects vision focusing disorder. The convex type is used to overcome farsightedness. The concave type is used for correcting nearsightedness. For patients with astigmatism, cylindrical types are prescribed by ophthalmologists. Presbyopia, an age-related vision issue, can be corrected by wearing glasses as prescribed by a doctor. 
  2. Laser Treatment: It is also one surgical method for restoring the original shape of the cornea through surgery. To prevent the worsening of these eye problems, people should limit their screen time to avoid getting the eyes affected by radiation.


The eyes are among the most complex and delicate body organs, necessitating special attention and protection if you wish to live a long, healthy, vivid, and colourful life. In addition to taking personal care of your eyes, keep an eye out for any alarming clinical symptoms and get professional assistance before it's too late.


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Updated on : 24 November 2023


Dr. Aman Priya Khanna

Dr. Aman Priya Khanna

MBBS, DNB General Surgery, Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery, FIAGES

12 Years Experience

Dr Aman Priya Khanna is a well-known General Surgeon, Proctologist and Bariatric Surgeon currently associated with HealthFort Clinic, Health First Multispecialty Clinic in Delhi. He has 12 years of experience in General Surgery and worke...View More


About Authors

HexaHealth Care Team

HexaHealth Care Team brings you medical content covering many important conditions, procedures falling under different medical specialities. The content published is thoroughly reviewed by our panel of qualified doctors for its accuracy and relevance.

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