Macular Degeneration

Macular Degeneration

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Macular Degeneration

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Macular Degeneration 

What is Macular Degeneration?

Macular degeneration, or vision loss, is caused by damage to the macula. In people over 50 years, age-related macular degeneration is the principal cause of substantial visual impairment. 

According to the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), many people have Age-Related Macular Degeneration, and most of them have a risk of losing their eyesight. Caucasians are more likely than other races to get Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Women are more prone to develop Age-Related Macular Degeneration than men. This condition develops when the macula, a small piece of the retina on the eye's interior rear layer, deteriorates. According to a study, researchers have classified Age-Related Macular Degeneration into two types:

  1. Dry/Atrophic Age-Related Macular Degeneration: In this condition, thinning of a specific part of the retina called the macula takes place causing partial or total vision impairment. Dry macular degeneration accounts for approximately 80-90% of cases of Age-Related Macular Degeneration because it has no prominent cure at present.  
  2. Wet/Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration: This condition characterises when there is a progression in the dry form of Age-Related Macular Degeneration by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal blood vessels below the specific part of the retina called the Macula.



What are Causes and Risk Factors of Macular Degeneration?

  1. For wet macular degeneration, abnormal blood arteries that leak fluid or blood into the macula are the most common cause.
  2. There is no exact cause known for dry macular degeneration. However, research suggests that a combination of heredity and environmental variables, such as smoking, obesity, and diet, may influence it. As the age matures, the problem in the eyes worsens.

Risk factors for Macular Degeneration include:

  1. Genetic and Hereditary
  2. Exposure to harmful rays
  3. Smoking
  4. Nutritional Deficiencies





What are the Symptoms of Macular Degeneration?

The following symptoms may go unrecognised- in the early stages of macular degeneration:

  1. Gradual weakening of the vision 
  2. Objects look twisted
  3. Straight lines appear wavy or twisted
  4. Blurry vision
  5. Different colour perception 
  6. In the centre of the vision, there is a black or empty void with dark and blurry areas

Expert Doctors

Dr. Anil Kumar Malik


45+ Years




Dr. Deepak Vohra


23+ Years




NABH Accredited Hospitals

Lilavati Hospital And Research Centre

Lilavati Hospital And Research Centre

4.6/5( Ratings)
A-791, Bandra Reclamation Rd

How is Macular Degeneration diagnosed?

Make an appointment with an optometrist right away - if you notice any of the following signs or symptoms.   

  1. Routine eye examination
  2. An optometrist can administer an Amsler -Grid, a simple take-home screening exam. 
  3. Angiography or arteriography
  4. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

What are the Non-Surgical Treatment Options for Macular Degeneration?

Non-surgical Treatment modalities for macular degeneration include:

  1. Low Vision Aids
  2. Anti-angiogenic drugs like Bevacizumab, Ranibizumab, etc

Macula tissue thins and ceases functioning when dry macular degeneration progresses. Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration has no treatment, and any vision loss in the centre of the eye is permanent. On the other hand, researchers and clinicians feel that the development of dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration is linked to nutrition. Dietary changes and nutritional supplements can slow vision loss. Anti-VEGF drugs are injected into the eyes to treat wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration if detected early enough. 

Role of Nutrition in Age-Related Macular Degeneration 

  1. There is no alternative to the improved standard of living that comes with having a good vision. 
  2. Adding particular nutrients to a patient's diet daily, whether through foods or supplements, can help save their vision. Consumption of nutrients like omega-3 supplements, vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc and lutein can help to reduce the risk of macular degeneration.   

What are the Benefits of treating Macular Degeneration?

  1. Vision aids can help increase the quality of your life
  2. Helps improves the vision
  3. Aids in slowing down the damage to your central vision


What may happen if Macular Degeneration is left untreated?

  1. Visual hallucinations
  2. Depression and anxiety
  3. Retinal detachment 
  4. Decreased vision or loss of vision 


Disclaimer: The information provided here is for educational and learning purposes only. It doesn't cover every medical condition and might not be relevant to your personal situation. This information isn't medical advice, isn't meant for diagnosing any condition, and shouldn't replace talking to a certified medical or healthcare professional.


Dr. Aman Priya Khanna

Dr. Aman Priya Khanna

MBBS, DNB General Surgery, Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery, FIAGES

12 Years Experience

Dr Aman Priya Khanna is a well-known General Surgeon, Proctologist and Bariatric Surgeon currently associated with HealthFort Clinic, Health First Multispecialty Clinic in Delhi. He has 12 years of experience in General Surgery and worke...View More


Rajath R Prabhu

Rajath R Prabhu

MSc. Clinical Research I PG Diploma in Public Health Services Management

3 Years Experience

His work in medical content writing and proofreading is noteworthy. He has also contributed immensely to public health research and has authored four scientific manuscripts in international journals. He was assoc...View More

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