Random Blood Sugar Normal Range - Level Chart by Age

Medically Reviewed by Dr. Aman Priya Khanna
Written by Nikita Tyagi, last updated on 18 April 2023| min read
Random Blood Sugar Normal Range - Level Chart by Age

Quick Summary

  • Random blood sugar test is a simple blood test that measures your blood sugar level at any time of the day.
  • Random blood sugar test is used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes. It is also used to monitor blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.
  • Normal random blood sugar level is less than 140 mg/dL.

Did you know the blood glucose levels of diabetic and prediabetic patients fluctuate during the day and night? While your body tries to balance blood sugar levels, high or low levels indicate conditions requiring medical attention. Maintaining random blood sugar normal range is vital to prevent long-term health issues. 

Doctors use random blood sugar tests to determine if you are at risk of developing diabetes. The following blog discusses a random blood sugar test, the random blood sugar range, the need for the test, and the interpretation of the results.

About Random Blood Sugar Test

Random Blood Sugar (RBS) test measures a person’s blood glucose or blood sugar levels at any time during the day. Blood tests for diabetes usually require either fasting or continuous monitoring. However, these are not required in a random blood sugar test.

The test is performed outside the normal testing schedule. It is useful for patients with type 1 diabetes who need a speedy diagnosis for urgent supplementary insulin.

In adults without diabetes, blood sugar levels are managed through internal insulin and the body’s use of sugar for energy. If they receive random blood sugar tests throughout the day, their glucose levels will remain relatively stable even after the:

  1. Diet variations
  2. Stress experiences
  3. Meals at different times of the day

In people with prediabetes and diabetes, blood sugar levels significantly vary throughout the day, especially when the disease is not managed well. As a result, the random test results will also vary widely. 

Who Needs a Random Blood Sugar Test?

Patients with diabetes should include a random blood sugar test in their panel of tests. A doctor might recommend random blood sugar for elevated levels if a person is at higher-than-average risk of developing diabetes. Risk factors for diabetes include:

  1. Being 45 or above
  2. Being overweight or obese
  3. Prediabetes
  4. High blood pressure, heart disease, or blood vessel disease
  5. Family history of diabetes
  6. Getting little to no exercise
  7. Polycystic ovarian syndrome
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Importance of Random Blood Sugar Testing

Random blood sugar is an effective test, especially for people with diabetes. It helps determine the glucose levels in the blood at any given time. It is a useful tool as:

  1. It helps diagnose and monitor diabetes in its early stage, a metabolic disorder that affects millions of people worldwide.
  2. This test can help detect and prevent various health complications associated with diabetes.
  3. The results of the test can guide the treatment plan, including medication and lifestyle changes.
    This can help people with diabetes achieve better control of their blood sugar levels and reduce the risk of complications.

When to Test Random Blood Sugar?

Your doctor can recommend the frequency of random blood sugar testing based on why you need the test. Generally, random blood sugar testing frequency depends on the type of diabetes and your treatment plan.

Although random blood sugar tests can be done anytime during the day, the following is when the doctor suggests taking the test for different types of diabetes.

  1. Type 1 Diabetes: For type 1 diabetes, you may need to check your blood glucose levels 4 to 10 times a day, especially:
    1. Before your meals and snacks
    2. Before and after exercising
    3. Before going to bed
    4. During the night
  2. Type 2 Diabetes: For type 2 diabetes, where you manage your condition with lifestyle changes, you may not need frequent random blood sugar tests.
    If you take intermediate or long-lasting insulin, you must check random blood sugar before breakfast and sometimes before dinner or bedtime.
    However, if you take multiple insulin injections, you may need to perform the test several times during the day.
  3. Gestational Diabetes: A pregnant woman with diabetes may need to check her random sugar levels before breakfast and an hour after each meal.
Note: It is best to talk to your doctor about when to test random blood sugar. They can suggest the right frequency based on your condition and treatment.

Testing Random Blood Sugar Levels

A random blood sugar level test is a quick test that can be performed at a doctor’s clinic or at home. The test requires taking a small blood sample using a needle.

At Doctor’s Clinic

You can expect the following during a blood test at a doctor’s clinic:

  1. You will not be required to fast before the procedure.
  2. In the clinic, you will be made to sit comfortably in a chair.
  3. The doctor or nurse will take a small blood sample using a needle, usually from your finger.
  4. The blood will be tested to measure the amount of glucose in it.
  5. The results are often available quickly.

At-Home Test

Random blood sugar levels can also be checked at home using a glucose monitoring device. The following is how you can check your random blood sugar range at home:

  1. Prick your finger with a small needle, known as a lancet.
  2. Put a drop of your blood on the test strip.
  3. Place the test strip into a meter that displays the blood sugar levels.
  4. These devices will deliver results in less than 15 seconds.

Understanding Blood Sugar Levels

Measuring blood sugar levels is an important indicator of diagnosing diabetes. Normal random blood sugar levels are not a cause for concern. However, the levels exceeding the random blood sugar test normal range may indicate serious conditions, such as diabetes.

  1. A blood sugar level between 110 and 140 milligrams per decilitre (mg/dL) is considered within the random blood sugar normal range.
  2. If the random blood sugar ranges between 140 and 200 mg/dL, the person is at risk of prediabetes.
  3. If the blood sugar level exceeds 200 mg/dL, the person is diagnosed with diabetes.
    The random blood sugar normal range in mmol/l  (millimoles per litre) is 11.1 mmol/l or more.

Changes in blood sugar levels are subject to several factors. Usually, people without diabetes have random blood sugar in the normal range throughout the day. On the other hand, diabetic people may experience fluctuating blood sugar levels based on several factors, such as:

Factors that may increase a person’s blood glucose levels may include:

  1. Low levels of physical activities
  2. Eating too much
  3. Side effects of medications
  4. Stress
  5. Illness
  6. Pain
  7. Dehydration
  8. Menstruation

Factors that may decrease a person’s blood glucose levels may include:

  1. Intense physical activities or exercise
  2. Eating little to no food
  3. Side effects of medications
  4. Consuming alcohol

Interpreting the Random Blood Sugar Results

The results of random glucose levels can help detect certain medical conditions. If the result shows higher than normal random blood sugar, you may have diabetes or prediabetes.

Glucose levels can also fall below the normal random blood sugar level. High and low levels of blood sugar may indicate different medical conditions. High levels of blood sugar may be a sign of the following conditions:

  1. Diabetes or prediabetes
  2. Kidney disease
  3. Hyperthyroidism
  4. Pancreatitis
  5. Pancreatic cancer

Low levels of blood sugar may be a sign of the following conditions: 

  1. Hypothyroidism
  2. Liver disease
  3. Effect of too much insulin or other diabetes medicine

If you do not have random blood sugar normal range, it does not necessarily mean a medical condition that needs treatment. Sometimes, high-stress levels and certain medications can also affect glucose levels. Therefore, it is best to talk to your healthcare provider to check what the results mean.

Random Blood Sugar Values for Diabetic Patients

Random blood sugar does not require you to fast before undergoing the test. However, the results for patients with diabetes can vary depending on the last time they ate. 

  1. If you conduct the test before a meal, the random blood sugar levels can be between 80 and 130 mg/dL.
  2. Glucose levels can be under 180 mg/dL within 1 to 2 hours after the start of a meal.
  3. If you do a random blood sugar test during fasting, a reading of less than 100 mg/dL is within the fasting RBS normal range.
  4. A fasting reading between 100 and 125 mg/dL may indicate prediabetes.
  5. If the fasting reading exceeds 126 mg/dL, there is a high chance of diabetes.

Symptoms of Abnormal Blood Sugar Levels

Several factors can bring on high blood sugar or low blood sugar. Elevated or low blood sugar levels can cause problematic symptoms that may need medical attention. High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) symptoms include the following:

  1. A frequent need to urinate
  2. Intense fatigue
  3. Hunger and thirst
  4. Visual problems
  5. Weight loss
  6. Skin infections
  7. Slow-healing cuts and sores

Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) symptoms include the following:

  1. Weakness
  2. Dizziness
  3. Shaking or trembling
  4. Sweating
  5. Feeling hungry
  6. Rapid heartbeat
  7. Confusion or trouble concentrating
  8. Irritation or anxiety
  9. Tingling or numbness in the tongue, lips, or cheek
  10. Colour draining from the skin

Treatment for Abnormal Random Blood Sugar Levels

A shift from the random blood sugar normal range can cause severe complications. With effective treatment, it is possible to restore normal random blood sugar levels. However, the treatment differs for high and low blood sugar levels.

Treatment for High Blood Sugar Levels

People with type 2 diabetes can manage high blood sugar levels with home treatments, such as: 

  1. Regular exercise
  2. Taking the medications as directed by a physician
  3. Eat smaller portions and avoid sugary beverages
  4. Avoid frequent snacking
  5. Monitor your blood glucose as directed by the healthcare professional
  6. Adjust your insulin doses

Emergency treatment for severe hyperglycemia includes:

  1. Fluid Replacement: You will receive fluids through a vein until your body has the required fluids. Fluid replacement also helps dilute the extra sugar in your blood.
  2. Electrolyte Replacement: A lack of insulin can lower the electrolyte level in your blood. You will receive electrolytes through the vein to keep your heart, nerve cells, and muscles working as they should.
  3. Insulin Therapy: You will receive insulin therapy through a vein to reverse the process that causes ketones (chemicals made in the liver when glucose is in short supply) to build up in the blood.

Treatment for Low Blood Sugar Levels

Mild or moderate hypoglycemia can be treated by eating or drinking fast-acting carbohydrates, such as glucose tablets, regular soda, fruit juice, honey, or sugary candy. The ‘15-15 rule’ can help treat mild or moderate hypoglycemia episodes:

  1. Eat or drink 15 grams of fast-acting carbohydrates to raise your blood sugar level.
  2. Check your blood sugar after 15 minutes.
  3. If the random blood sugar range is below 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L), eat or drink another 15 grams of fast-acting carbohydrates.
  4. Repeat until your random blood sugar level reaches at least 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L).
  5. A person suffering from severe low blood sugar levels may immediately require a synthetic form of glucagon as an injection or nasal powder.
    It triggers the liver to release stored glucose, increasing blood sugar levels.

Lifestyle Changes

Diabetes is a serious condition. A lack of careful disease management can lead to serious, life-threatening complications. Some lifestyle changes to include in your diabetes treatment plan include:

  1. Eat a healthy diet including fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, legumes, and whole grains
  2. Maintain a healthy weight
  3. Make exercise and physical activity a part of your everyday routine
  4. Schedule regular physical exams and eye exams
  5. Control your blood pressure and cholesterol
  6. Take care of your teeth
  7. Manage stress by learning relaxation techniques and getting plenty of sleep
  8. Quit smoking
  9. Reduce alcohol consumption

When to Consult a Doctor?

Diabetes, if not managed properly, can cause unavoidable complications. Therefore, diabetic patients must take all the necessary steps to keep their glucose levels in check.

People with prediabetes or without diabetes should modify their lifestyle and avoid this condition. Talk to your healthcare provider if you are at an increased risk of getting diabetes. Furthermore, you should consult a doctor if:

  1. Your random blood sugar test results reveal type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes (speak to a healthcare professional about establishing a comprehensive treatment plan)
  2. You have prediabetes (discuss lifestyle changes to prevent diabetic issues)


Diabetes is a chronic disease that requires close medical attention. Maintaining the random blood sugar normal range can help manage the symptoms well. Now that you know what is the normal range of blood sugar levels, you should perform regular blood sugar tests to keep your glucose level under control.

Wide variations in the levels indicate a need for change in the management plan. If your glucose levels do not get under control, it is time to speak to a healthcare professional.

The experts at HexaHealth can help you diagnose and manage abnormal random blood sugar levels. Contact a professional at HexaHealth TODAY for any more doubts regarding the random blood sugar normal range and what it means if the levels fall below or rise above this range.

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Frequently Asked Questions

The random blood sugar normal range is between 110 and 140 mg/dL or 6.1 and 7.8 mmol/l. A blood sugar level between 140 and 200 mg/dL or 7.8 and 11.1 mmol/l indicates prediabetes. When blood sugar levels exceed 200 mg/dL or 11.1 mmol/l, the person has diabetes.

Random blood sugar is the glucose level in the blood at random points during the day. Random blood sugar tests do not require fasting or regular monitoring.

While the levels may fluctuate for diabetic patients, they remain relatively stable for people without diabetes throughout the day. Random blood sugar range can help determine if you have any serious medical conditions, such as diabetes, kidney disease, liver disease, thyroid, etc.

Several factors can affect the normal random blood sugar level. Factors that cause low blood sugar include intense physical activities or exercise, eating little to no food, side effects of medications, and drinking alcohol.

Factors that cause high blood sugar in people with diabetes include low levels of physical activity, eating too much, side effects of medications, stress, illness, infection, injury, pain, dehydration, and menstruation.

Symptoms of lower-than-normal random blood sugar (hypoglycemia) include weakness, dizziness or lightheadedness, shaking or trembling, sweating and chills, extreme hunger, rapid heart rate, confusion, anxiety or irritability, and tingling or numbness.

Severe hypoglycemia can cause additional symptoms, such as vision problems, slurred speech, clumsiness, seizures, or loss of consciousness.

The major difference between random and fasting blood sugar is the time when the test is conducted. Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) measures the glucose level in the blood after not eating anything for at least 8 hours.

On the other hand, Random Blood Sugar (RBS) measures blood sugar at random times, regardless of when you ate last. FBS is usually the first test to check prediabetes and diabetes.

A random blood sugar test is a quick test that can be done within five minutes in a doctor’s clinic or office. During the procedure, the doctor or the nurse takes a small blood sample from your finger using a needle. The blood is tested to measure the amount of glucose in it.

The test results are usually available quickly. Unlike other diabetes tests, random blood sugar test does not require patients to fast before the test.

High random blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) can cause symptoms like frequent urination, excessive fatigue, hunger and thirst, headache, visual problems, weight loss, skin infections, vaginal yeast infections, and slow-healing cuts and sores.

High random blood sugar levels often result from insufficient insulin due to insulin resistance or pancreas issues. Insulin resistance can be caused due to obesity, physical inactivity, high-carbohydrates and saturated food, and certain medications.

Certain hormonal and inherited genetic conditions can also cause insulin resistance. Pancreas issues that cause high blood sugar levels include autoimmune disease, pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis, and cystic fibrosis.

Causes of low random blood sugar levels in people with diabetes include taking too much insulin or taking the wrong insulin, incorrect timing of insulin intake, high doses of oral diabetes medication, being more active than usual, skipping meals or eating later than usual, or drinking alcohol without eating.

Pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes are likelier to have low blood sugar levels during the first trimester. Causes of low random blood sugar in people without diabetes include reactive hypoglycemia (low blood sugar after a meal) and fasting hypoglycemia.

High random blood sugar levels over the years can cause damage to blood vessels and tissues in the body, leading to several complications like heart disease, stroke, retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, and gastroparesis.

People with Type 2 diabetes can manage high random blood sugar with home treatment such as regular exercise, taking medications as directed, following the diabetes eating plan, regularly monitoring the blood sugar, and adjusting the insulin doses.

Emergency treatment may be needed to restore the random blood sugar level normal range for severely high blood sugar levels. These treatment options include fluid replacement, electrolyte replacement, and insulin therapy.

Eating or drinking fast-acting carbohydrates treats mild or moderate hypoglycemia or low random blood sugar. Follow a 15-15 rule to treat the condition.

  1. Eat or drink 15 grams of carbohydrates like regular soda, juice, honey, or glucose tablet.
  2. Check your blood sugar after 15 minutes.
  3. If the random blood sugar level is below 70 mg/dL, take another 15 grams of fast-acting carbohydrates.
  4. Repeat until the level reaches at least 70 mg/dL.
  5. For severe hypoglycemia, you may require a synthetic form of glucagon administered as an injection or nasal powder.

Yes! Random blood sugar can be used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes. The test measures the amount of glucose or sugar circulating in your blood at any random time during the day. No matter when you last ate, a random blood glucose range of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or more suggests diabetes.

Any deviation from the random blood sugar normal range can help detect if a person is diabetic or prediabetic. However, the doctor may perform further tests, such as a fasting blood glucose test, to confirm the diagnosis.

Generally, the frequency of checking random blood sugar depends on the type of diabetes and your treatment plan. People with type 1 diabetes should check their random blood sugar anywhere between 4 to 10 times a day, including before meals, before and after exercising, before going to bed, and sometimes during the night.

People with type 2 diabetes who manage their condition with lifestyle changes do not require to undergo frequent random blood sugar tests. Your doctor can suggest the right schedule for random blood sugar based on why you require it.

Diet and exercise can help people maintain a normal random blood sugar level. 

  1. Regular exercise can help maintain a moderate weight and increase insulin sensitivity (the cells will use the available sugar more effectively in the bloodstream).
  2. Exercise also helps your muscles use blood sugar for movement.
  3. Foods with carbohydrates and fibre can influence your blood sugar levels.
  4. Manage carb intake (eating too many carbs can increase blood glucose levels).
  5. Increase fibre intake (which improves the body’s ability to regulate blood sugar).

Yes! Stress can affect random blood sugar levels, but only in patients with diabetes. Random blood sugar levels are not affected by stress for adults without diabetes.

When stressed, your insulin levels fall, glucagon levels rise, and glucose availability in the bloodstream increases. As a result, your random blood sugar level increases.

If stress does not go away, it can affect your mood and how you care for yourself, impacting your emotional health. This can make managing diabetes even more difficult. Therefore, it is important to reduce stress with relaxation techniques.

Yes! Certain prescription and over-the-counter medications can cause a spike in the random blood sugar test results. Some medicines that can increase your blood sugar levels include drugs to treat high blood pressure, birth control pills, steroids, high doses of asthma medicine, statins, cough syrup, etc.
Studies have shown that random blood sugar levels increase with age. Insulin and glucose levels are higher in older adults than in younger people. These higher values may indicate that the body cannot efficiently use glucose for energy.

Yes! Random blood sugar levels can get affected during pregnancy. During pregnancy, the placenta makes hormones that cause a build-up of glucose in the blood.

Generally, the pancreas can secrete enough insulin to handle the glucose build-up. However, if your body does not make enough insulin, the blood sugar levels may rise, and you may develop gestational diabetes.

Genetics play a huge role in regulating your random blood sugar levels. While genetics alone does not cause diabetes, certain types, such as type 2 and gestational diabetes, have a genetic link.

Updated on : 18 April 2023

Disclaimer: The information provided here is for educational and learning purposes only. It doesn't cover every medical condition and might not be relevant to your personal situation. This information isn't medical advice, isn't meant for diagnosing any condition, and shouldn't replace talking to a certified medical or healthcare professional.


Dr. Aman Priya Khanna

Dr. Aman Priya Khanna

MBBS, DNB General Surgery, Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery, FIAGES

12 Years Experience

Dr Aman Priya Khanna is a well-known General Surgeon, Proctologist and Bariatric Surgeon currently associated with HealthFort Clinic, Health First Multispecialty Clinic in Delhi. He has 12 years of experience in General Surgery and worke...View More


Nikita Tyagi

Nikita Tyagi

BPharm (Jawaharlal Nehru Technical University, Hyderabad)

2 Years Experience

An enthusiastic writer with an eye for details and medical correctness. An avid reviewer and publisher. She emphasises authentic information and creates value for the readers. Earlier, she was involved in making ...View More

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